What is the difference between evaluation and research, especially applied research? For some, they are one and the same. Evaluation and research use the same methods, write the same types of reports, and come to the same conclusions. Evaluation is often described as applied research. For instance, here are some recent quotes describing what evaluation is: “Evaluation is applied research that aims to assess the worth of a service.” (Barker, Pistrang, & Elliott, 2016). “Program evaluation is applied research that asks practical questions and is performed in real-life situations.” (Hackbarth & Gall, 2005), and the current editor of the American Journal of Evaluation saying that “evaluation is applied research.” (Rallis, 2014). This is confusing for introductory evaluation students, particularly those coming from a research background or studying evaluation at a research institution.
Others claim the distinction between evaluation and (applied) research is too hard to define. I do not disagree with this point. The boundaries between evaluation and research are fuzzy in many regards. Take, for instance, evaluation methodology. Our designs and methods are largely derived from social science methodology. However, as Mathison (2008) notes in her article on the distinctions between evaluation and research, evaluation has gone much further in the types of designs and methods it uses such as significant change technique, photovoice, cluster evaluation, evaluability assessment, and success case method. Scriven and Davidson have begun discussing evaluation-specific methodology (i.e., the methods distinct to evaluation), including needs and values assessment, merit determination methods (e.g., rubrics), importance weighting methodologies, evaluative synthesis methodologies, and value-for-money analysis (Davidson, 2013). These methods show that, while we indeed incorporate social science methodology, we are more than that and have unique methods beyond that.
This is no better illustrated than by the hourglass analogy provided by John LaVelle. The differences between research and evaluation are clear at the beginning and end of each process, but when it comes to the middle (methods and analysis), they are quite similar. Thus, evaluation differs from research in a multitude of ways. The following table should be interpreted with a word of caution. The table suggests clear delineations between research and evaluation, but as Mathison notes, many of the distinctions offered (e.g., evaluation particularizes while research generalizes) are not “singularly true for either evaluation or research.” (p. 189, 2008).
|Area of difference||Research||Evaluation|
|Purpose||Seek to generate new knowledge to inform the research base||Seek to generate knowledge for a particular program or client|
|What questions are asked||Researchers formulate their own hypotheses||Evaluators answer questions that the program is concerned with|
|Value judgments||Research is value neutral||Evaluators provide a value judgment|
|Action setting||Basic research takes place in controlled environments||Evaluation takes place in an action setting where few things can be controlled|
|Utility||Research emphasizes “production of knowledge and leaves its use to the natural processes of dissemination and application.” (Weiss, 1997)||Evaluation is concerned with use from the beginning|
|Publication||Basic research is published in journals||Evaluation is rarely published, typically only stakeholders can view the reports|
I want to conclude by saying that if we are to call ourselves a transdscipline or an alpha discipline, like Scriven would argue we are, then we should work hard to differentiate ourselves from other disciplines, particularly basic and applied research. This may be difficult, particularly between applied research and evaluation, but we need to make these differences as explicit as possible, partly to help incoming evaluators in the field understand the differences (see EvalTalk for this repetitive question since 1998; Mathison, 2008) and partly to separate ourselves from research (and research from evaluation).